Duration of amoxicillin-clavulanate for protracted bacterial bronchitis in children: a randomized controlled trial

Ruffles, Thomas, Goyal, Vikas, Marchant, Julie, Masters, Brent, Yerkovich, Stephanie, Buntain, Helen, Cook, Anne, Schultz, Andre, Versteegh, Lesley and Chang, Anne (2020) Duration of amoxicillin-clavulanate for protracted bacterial bronchitis in children: a randomized controlled trial. The European Respiratory Society (ERS) conference, 07 September 2020. Published in: European Respiratory Journal. 56 (64) a4131. European Respiratory Society ISSN 0903-1936

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Introduction: The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for children with protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), a common cause of chronic wet cough in children, is controversial. Effective management may reduce the risk of chronic suppurative disease (e.g. bronchiectasis).

Objective: To determine whether 4-wks of amoxicillin-clavulanate is superior to 2-wks for improved clinical outcomes in children with suspected PBB.

Methods: Multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, RCT in Australian children aged 2-mo to 19-yrs with suspected PBB. Children were randomized to either 4-wks of amoxicillin-clavulanate or 2-wks of amoxicillin-clavulanate followed by 2-wks placebo. Follow-up was for 6-mo. Our primary outcome was cough resolution within 28-days. Recurrence of PBB, parent-proxy cough specific quality of life (PC-QoL) score at 28-days and time to first exacerbation were secondary outcomes.

Results: 106 children were randomized, median age 2.0-yrs. There was no difference in cough resolution by 28-days between the groups (4-wks=61.5% vs 2-wks=71.4%) (RR 0.87, 95% CI0.59-1.29; p=0.50). Longer antibiotic treatment resulted in a non-significant increase in time to next wet cough exacerbation (150-wks vs 48-wks; p=0.094) and reduced PBB recurrence (74% vs 53%; p=0.074) in those whose cough resolved by day-28. PC-QoL improved by a median of 2.0 across both groups.

Conclusion: A 4-wk course of amoxicillin-clavulanate in children with suspected PBB confers little advantage compared to a 2-wk course. A non-inferiority RCT is required to support our findings but until such data is available, children suspected of having PBB should be treated with the current standard 2-wks.

Item Type: Conference Proceedings
Schools and Departments: Brighton and Sussex Medical School > Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2021 09:31
Last Modified: 13 Aug 2021 15:18
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/99430
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