The Sahel crisis since 2012

Raleigh, Clionadh, Nsaibia, Héni and Dowd, Caitriona (2020) The Sahel crisis since 2012. African Affairs. pp. 1-21. ISSN 0001-9909

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Abstract

The ‘perfect storm’ that enveloped Mali in 2012 has since escalated into a protracted and widespread crisis across the Sahel. The region currently hosts multiple, moving threats, which are most active in the three states of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger. In those states alone, between 2012 and 2019, there have been 1,463 armed clashes, 4,723 civilians killed, at the hands of 195 violent armed groups, in 1,263 discrete locations.1 Violence reached its highest level to date in 2019 and continues at heightened frequency, suggesting a dangerous threshold has been reached and new frontlines loom. The critical lesson of this briefing is that this tsunami of conflict did not initially manifest as overtly Islamist or even ideologically coherent, but grew from opportunism. Populist rhetoric, displays of weakened state authority, a brutal—or absent—security sector, the militarization of neighbors, livelihoods and communities each constitute viable ways that the Sahel violence can metastasize through the wider region.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Sahel, Conflict, Violence, Africa, Politics
Schools and Departments: School of Global Studies > Geography
SWORD Depositor: Mx Elements Account
Depositing User: Mx Elements Account
Date Deposited: 03 Nov 2020 08:25
Last Modified: 25 Feb 2022 12:32
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/94763

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Project NameSussex Project NumberFunderFunder Ref
ERSUS - Violence Elites and resilience in states under stressG2187EUROPEAN UNION726504