Individual differences in the tendency to see the expected

Andermane, Nora, Bosten, Jenny M, Seth, Anil K and Ward, Jamie (2020) Individual differences in the tendency to see the expected. Consciousness and Cognition, 85. a102989 1-20. ISSN 1053-8100

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Research has established that prior knowledge of visual stimuli facilitates their entry into awareness. We adopted an individual differences approach to explore whether a tendency to ‘see the expected’ is general or method-specific. We administered a binocular rivalry task and manipulated selective attention, as well as induced expectations via predictive context, self-generated imagery, expectancy cues, and perceptual priming. Most prior manipulations led to a facilitated awareness of the biased percept in binocular rivalry, whereas strong signal primes led to a suppressed awareness, i.e., adaptation. Correlations and factor analysis revealed that the facilitatory effect of priors on visual awareness is closely related to attentional control. We also investigated whether expectation-based biases predict perceptual abilities. Adaptation to strong primes predicted improved naturalistic change detection and the facilitatory effect of weak primes predicted the experience of perceptual anomalies. Taken together, our results indicate that the facilitatory effect of priors may be underpinned by an attentional mechanism but the tendency to ‘see the expected’ is method-specific.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: individual differences, visual awareness, attention, expectation, predictive processing, binocular rivalry
Schools and Departments: School of Psychology > Psychology
SWORD Depositor: Mx Elements Account
Depositing User: Mx Elements Account
Date Deposited: 22 Jul 2020 08:07
Last Modified: 18 Sep 2021 01:00

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