Advances in anti-cancer immunotherapy: car-T cell, checkpoint inhibitors, dendritic cell vaccines, and oncolytic viruses, and emerging cellular and molecular targets

Alard, Emilie, Butnariu, Aura-Bianca, Grillo, Marta, Kirkham, Charlotte, Zinovkin, Dmitry Aleksandrovich, Newnham, Louise, Macciochi, Jenna and Pranjol, Md Zahidul Islam (2020) Advances in anti-cancer immunotherapy: car-T cell, checkpoint inhibitors, dendritic cell vaccines, and oncolytic viruses, and emerging cellular and molecular targets. Cancers, 12 (7). a1826. ISSN 2072-6694

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Abstract

Unlike traditional cancer therapies, such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy that are typically non-specific, cancer immunotherapy harnesses the high specificity of a patient’s own immune system to selectively kill cancer cells. The immune system is the body’s main cancer surveillance system, but cancers may evade destruction thanks to various immune-suppressing mechanisms. We therefore need to deploy various immunotherapy-based strategies to help bolster the anti-tumour immune responses. These include engineering T cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to specifically recognise tumour neoantigens, inactivating immune checkpoints, oncolytic viruses and dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, which have all shown clinical benefit in certain cancers. However, treatment efficacy remains poor due to drug-induced adverse events and immunosuppressive tendencies of the tumour microenvironment. Recent preclinical studies have unveiled novel therapies such as anti-cathepsin antibodies, galectin-1 blockade and anti-OX40 agonistic antibodies, which may be utilised as adjuvant therapies to modulate the tumour microenvironment and permit more ferocious anti-tumour immune response.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Life Sciences > Biochemistry
SWORD Depositor: Mx Elements Account
Depositing User: Mx Elements Account
Date Deposited: 09 Jul 2020 07:00
Last Modified: 09 Jul 2020 07:00
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/92448

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