Identifying sources, pathways and risk drivers in ecosystems of Japanese Encephalitis in an epidemic-prone north Indian district

Kakkar, Manish, Chaturvedi, Sanjay, Saxena, Vijay Kumar, Dhole, Tapan N, Kumar, Ashok, Rogawski, Elizabeth T, Abbas, Syed, Venkataramanan, Vidya V and Chatterjee, Pranab (2017) Identifying sources, pathways and risk drivers in ecosystems of Japanese Encephalitis in an epidemic-prone north Indian district. PLoS ONE, 12. e0175745. ISSN 1932-6203

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Abstract

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has caused repeated outbreaks in endemic pockets of India. This study was conducted in Kushinagar, a highly endemic district, to understand the human-animal-ecosystem interactions, and the drivers that influence disease transmission. Utilizing the ecosystems approach, a cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing mixed methods design was employed. Four villages (two with pig-rearing and two without) were randomly selected from a high, a medium and a low burden (based on case counts) block of Kushinagar. Children, pigs and vectors were sampled from these villages. A qualitative arm was incorporated to explain the findings from the quantitative surveys. All human serum samples were screened for JE-specific IgM using MAC ELISA and negative samples for JE RNA by rRT-PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In pigs, IgG ELISA and rRT-PCR for viral RNA were used. Of the 242 children tested, 24 tested positive by either rRT-PCR or MAC ELISA; in pigs, 38 out of the 51 pigs were positive. Of the known vectors, Culex vishnui was most commonly isolated across all biotopes. Analysis of 15 blood meals revealed human blood in 10 samples. Univariable analysis showed that gender, religion, lack of indoor residual spraying of insecticides in the past year, indoor vector density (all species), and not being vaccinated against JE in children were significantly associated with JE positivity. In multivariate analysis, only male gender remained as a significant risk factor. Based on previous estimates of symptomatic: asymptomatic cases of JE, we estimate that there should have been 618 cases from Kushinagar, although only 139 were reported. Vaccination of children and vector control measures emerged as major control activities; they had very poor coverage in the studied villages. In addition, lack of awareness about the cause of JE, lack of faith in the conventional medical healthcare system and multiple referral levels causing delay in diagnosis and treatment emerged as factors likely to result in adverse clinical outcomes.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Adolescent, Animals, Antibodies, Viral, Chickens, Child, Child, Preschool, Cross-Sectional Studies, Culicidae, Disease Vectors, Ecosystem, Encephalitis Virus, Japanese, Encephalitis, Japanese, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Female, Humans, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, India, Infant, Male, Risk Factors, Swine, Young Adult
Schools and Departments: Institute of Development Studies
SWORD Depositor: Mx Elements Account
Depositing User: Mx Elements Account
Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2020 16:40
Last Modified: 07 Apr 2020 16:09
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/90537

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