The ALMA spectroscopic survey in the HUDF: the cosmic dust and gas mass densities in galaxies up to z∼3

Magnelli, Benjamin, Boogaard, Leindert, Decarli, Roberto, Gónzalez-López, Jorge, Novak, Mladen, Popping, Gergö, Smail, Ian, Walter, Fabian, Aravena, Manuel, Assef, Roberto J, Bauer, Franz Erik, Bertoldi, Frank, Carilli, Chris, Cortes, Paulo C, Sargent, Mark T and others, (2020) The ALMA spectroscopic survey in the HUDF: the cosmic dust and gas mass densities in galaxies up to z∼3. Astrophysical Journal, 892 (1). pp. 1-22. ISSN 0004-637X

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Using the deepest 1.2 mm continuum map to date in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field obtained as part of the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) large program, we measure the cosmic density of dust and implied gas (H2+H I) mass in galaxies as a function of look–back time. We do so by stacking the contribution from all H-band selected galaxies above a given stellar mass in distinct redshift bins, ρdust(M∗ > M, z) and ρgas(M∗ > M, z). At all redshifts, ρdust(M∗ > M, z) and ρgas(M∗ > M, z) grow rapidly as M decreases down to 1010 M⊙, but this growth slows down towards lower stellar masses. This flattening implies that at our stellar mass-completeness limits (108 M⊙ and 108.9 M⊙ at z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 3), both quantities converge towards the total cosmic dust and gas mass densities in galaxies. The
cosmic dust and gas mass densities increase at early cosmic time, peak around z ∼ 2, and decrease by a
factor ∼ 4 and 7, compared to the density of dust and molecular gas in the local universe, respectively.
The contribution of quiescent galaxies – i.e., with little on-going star-formation– to the cosmic dust and
gas mass densities is minor (. 10%). The redshift evolution of the cosmic gas mass density resembles
that of the star-formation rate density, as previously found by CO-based measurements. This confirms
that galaxies have relatively constant star-formation efficiencies (within a factor ∼ 2) across cosmic
time. Our results also imply that by z ∼ 0, a large fraction (∼ 90%) of dust formed in galaxies across
cosmic time has been destroyed or ejected to the intergalactic medium.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences > Physics and Astronomy
SWORD Depositor: Mx Elements Account
Depositing User: Mx Elements Account
Date Deposited: 11 Mar 2020 10:22
Last Modified: 21 Feb 2022 13:41

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Project NameSussex Project NumberFunderFunder Ref
University of Sussex Astronomy Consolidated Grant 2017-2020G2050STFC-SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FACILITIES COUNCILST/P000525/1