Facilitators and barriers to teaching undergraduate medical students in general practice

Barber, John Richard George, Park, Sophie Elizabeth, Jensen, Kim, Marshall, Hannah, McDonald, Paula, McKinley, Robert Kee, Randles, Hannah and Alberti, Hugh (2019) Facilitators and barriers to teaching undergraduate medical students in general practice. Medical Education, 53 (8). pp. 778-787. ISSN 0308-0110

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Abstract

CONTEXT
Globally, primary health care is facing workforce shortages. Longer and higher-quality placements in primary care increase the likelihood of medical students choosing this specialty. However, the recruitment and retention of community primary care teachers are challenging. Relevant research was predominantly carried out in the 1990s. We seek to understand contemporary facilitators and barriers to general practitioner (GP) engagement with undergraduate education. Communities of practice (CoP) theory offers a novel conceptualisation, which may be pertinent in other community-based teaching settings.

METHODS
Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 24 GP teachers at four UK medical schools. We purposively sampled GPs new to teaching, established GP teachers and GPs who had recently stopped teaching. We undertook NVivo-assisted deductive and inductive thematic analysis of transcripts. We used CoP theory to interpret data. RESULTS Communities of practice theory illustrated that teachers negotiate membership of three CoPs: (i) clinical practice; (ii) the medical school, and (iii) teaching. The delivery of clinical care and teaching may be integrated or exist in tension. This can depend upon the positioning of the teaching and teacher as central or peripheral to the clinical CoP. Remuneration, workload, space and the expansion of GP trainee numbers impact on this. Teachers did not identify strongly as members of the medical school or a teaching community. Perceptions of membership were affected by medical school communication and support. The findings demonstrate gaps in medical school recruitment.

CONCLUSIONS
This research demonstrates the marginalisation of primary care-based teaching and proposes a novel explanation rooted in CoP theory. Concepts including identity and membership may be pertinent to other community-based teaching settings. We recommend that medical schools review and broaden recruitment methods. Teacher retention may be improved by optimising the interface between medical schools and teachers, fostering a teaching community, increasing professional rewards for teaching involvement and altering medical school expectations of learning in primary care.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: Brighton and Sussex Medical School > Primary Care and Public Health
Depositing User: Rosie Harvey
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2019 08:23
Last Modified: 16 Jul 2019 08:30
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/84916

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