Structure and evolution of the gorilla and orangutan growth hormone loci

Pérez-Maya, Antonio Ali, Wallis, Michael and Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto (2016) Structure and evolution of the gorilla and orangutan growth hormone loci. Mammalian Genome, 27 (9-10). pp. 511-523. ISSN 0938-8990

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In primates, the unigenic growth hormone (GH) locus of prosimians, expressed primarily in the anterior pituitary, evolved by gene duplications, independently in New World Monkeys (NWM) and Old World Monkeys (OWMs)/apes, to give complex clusters of genes expressed in the pituitary and placenta. In human and chimpanzee, the GH locus comprises five genes, GH-N being expressed as pituitary GH, whereas GH-V (placental GH) and CSHs (chorionic somatomammotropins) are expressed (in human and probably chimpanzee) in the placenta; the CSHs comprise CSH-A, CSH-B and the aberrant CSH-L (possibly a pseudogene) in human, and CSH-A1, CSH-A2 and CSH-B in chimpanzee. Here the GH locus in two additional great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and orangutan (Pongo abelii), is shown to contain six and four GH-like genes respectively. The gorilla locus possesses six potentially expressed genes, gGH-N, gGH-V and four gCSHs, whereas the orangutan locus has just three functional genes, oGH-N, oGH-V and oCSH-B, plus a pseudogene, oCSH-L. Analysis of regulatory sequences, including promoter, enhancer and P-elements, shows significant variation; in particular the proximal Pit-1 element of GH-V genes differs markedly from that of other genes in the cluster. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the initial gene duplication led to distinct GH-like and CSH-like genes, and that a second duplication provided separate GH-N and GH-V. However, evolution of the CSH-like genes remains unclear. Rapid adaptive evolution gave rise to the distinct CSHs, after the first duplication, and to GH-V after the second duplication. Analysis of transcriptomic databases derived from gorilla tissues establishes that the gGH-N, gGH-V and several gCSH genes are expressed, but the significance of the many CSH genes in gorilla remains unclear.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Depositing User: Michael Wallis
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2017 10:27
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2019 17:18

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