Beyond expectations: the physiological basis of sensory-enhancement of satiety

Yeomans, M R, Re, R, Wickham, M, Lundholm, H and Chambers, L (2016) Beyond expectations: the physiological basis of sensory-enhancement of satiety. International Journal of Obesity, 40 (11). pp. 1693-1698. ISSN 0307-0565

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Background/Objectives: Consumption of high-energy beverages has been implicated as a risk factor for weight gain, yet why nutrients ingested as beverages fail to generate adequate satiety remains unclear. In general consumers do not expect drinks to be satiating, but drinks generate greater satiety when their sensory characteristics imply they may be filling. These findings challenge traditional bottom-up models of how gut-based satiety signals modify behavior to suggest that beliefs at the point of ingestion modify gut-based satiety signaling.

Subjects/Methods: Healthy volunteers (n = 23) consumed four different beverages, combining an overt sensory manipulation (thin, Low Sensory, LS, or thicker and more creamy, Enhanced Sensory, ES) and covert nutrient manipulation (low energy, LE, 78kcal; high energy, HE, 267 kcal) on different days. Effects on satiety were assessed through rated appetite and levels of glucose, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholesystokinin (CCK) recorded periodically over 90 minutes, and through intake at an ad libitum test lunch.

Results: Intake at the test lunch and rated appetite were both altered by both the sensory and nutrient manipulations, with lowest intake and greatest suppression of hunger post-drink in the ESHE condition. Insulin increased more after HE than LE drinks, and after ES than LS drinks, while PP levels were higher after ES than LS versions. CCK levels only increased after the ESHE drink.

Conclusions: These data confirm acute sensitivity of satiety after consuming a drink both to the sensory characteristics and nutrient content of the drink, and suggest that this may be at least in part due to top-down modulation of release of satiety-related gut hormones.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Psychology > Psychology
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion
Depositing User: Lene Hyltoft
Date Deposited: 06 Jun 2016 16:00
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2019 20:20

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