Investigation of androgen receptor antagonist compounds present in influent and effluent from a wastewater works

Oladapo, Francis Olumide (2012) Investigation of androgen receptor antagonist compounds present in influent and effluent from a wastewater works. Doctoral thesis (DPhil), University of Sussex.

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A wide range of synthetic chemicals and their metabolites present in the environment
can antagonise the receptor activity of androgen hormones present in wildlife
and humans. With increasing global production of new synthetic chemicals, little is
known about their environmental fate, health consequences and end-points. This study
was conducted to identify and characterise chemicals with anti-androgenic activity present
in wastewater influent and effluent. This study was undertaken by applying a combination
of biological and analytical chemistry techniques involving Solid Phase Extraction
(SPE), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and an in vitro steroid
receptor assay for profiling and characterising extracts of grab influent and effluent
wastewater samples using a toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedure.

Initial work revealed variable recoveries of anti-androgenic activity from SPE of
wastewaters. Therefore SPE methodology to screen wastewater samples was developed
using a mixture of selected compounds which possess a range of polarities (log Kow).
Their recoveries from SPE were measured by HPLC protocol and ranged from 95-
100%. The mean±SD and % RSD values of the analysed wastewater replicates were
3.20±0.03 mgFeq/L and 0.78% for influent and 0.22±0.01 mgFeq/L and 3.80% for effluent
samples. The recoveries of wastewater extracts after fractionation were between
78.6% and 99.6%. Fractions containing anti-androgenic activity were analysed by Gas
Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A number of household chemicals were
detected in both influent and effluent wastewater fractions that contained antiandrogenic
activity. These included the anti-bacterial agents- triclosan, chlorophene,
dichlorophene, chloroxylenol, the musk fragrance galaxolide, the flame retardantstris(
1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP),
polymer plasticizer n-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBSA) and bisphenol A (BPA)
which is a chemical associated with the polycarbonate usage. The anti-androgenic potency of pure contaminants compared with that of flutamide ranged from 0.04 (TCPP)
to 13.40 (chlorophene). Anti-androgenic activity of 1.69 and 2.00% was recovered from
the fractions of the effluent and influent samples respectively indicating that AA of
about 98% are yet to be recovered.

This work reveals for the first time that over 12 contaminants contribute to the
total anti-androgenic activity present in wastewater effluent and that a number of compounds commonly used in household products (such as chlorophene, triclosan and
NBBSA) are predominant anti-androgens in wastewater effluents.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Schools and Departments: School of Life Sciences > Biology and Environmental Science
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD0201 Water supply for domestic and industrial purposes > TD0419 Water pollution
Depositing User: Library Cataloguing
Date Deposited: 10 Jul 2012 05:29
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2015 14:01

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