Introducing the Collective Action Recursive Empowerment (CARE) model: how small-scale protests led to large-scale collective action in Armenia's velvet revolution

Burrows, Brooke, Ulug, Ozden Melis, Khudoyan, Knar and Leidner, Bernhard (2022) Introducing the Collective Action Recursive Empowerment (CARE) model: how small-scale protests led to large-scale collective action in Armenia's velvet revolution. Political Psychology. pp. 1-22. ISSN 0162-895X

[img] PDF - Accepted Version
Restricted to SRO admin only until 14 September 2024.

Download (456kB)


The current study examined the motivations and outcomes of the Armenian Velvet Revolution through the voice of 18 protesters with qualitative interviews, exploring their motivations for joining the collective action, their perceptions of its implementation, and resultant psychological changes. Participants distinguished between individual- and group-level processes and bypassed social divisions through a shared belief in the value of “Rejecting Serzh” (i.e., opposing then President Serzh Sargsyan). Results also illustrated a recursive process of collective action supporting the development of a new theoretical CARE (collective action recursive empowerment) model. The model understands successful social change as a function of both individual and group identity informing collective-action processes: Smaller acts of protest increase individual feelings of shared group identity and empowerment/efficacy beliefs, thus strengthening motivations for continued protest and making large-scale collective action achievable. By linking together multiple time points of a collective-action process in one recursive model, the current work maps out one specific case of successful collective action in recent history, which serves as a basis for broader theoretical generalization and future empirical research.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: "Introducing the Collective Action Recursive Empowerment (CARE) Model: How Small-Scale Protests Led to Large-Scale Collective Action in Armenia's Velvet Revolution", which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.
Schools and Departments: School of Psychology > Psychology
SWORD Depositor: Mx Elements Account
Depositing User: Mx Elements Account
Date Deposited: 26 Oct 2022 14:43
Last Modified: 26 Oct 2022 14:54

View download statistics for this item

📧 Request an update