Evaluation of kidney function among people living with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy in Zambia

Pry, Jake M, Vinikoor, Michael J, Bolton Moore, Carolyn, Roy, Monika, Mody, Aaloke, Sikazwe, Izukanji, Sharma, Anjali, Chihota, Belinda, Duran-Frigola, Miquel, Daultrey, Harriet, Mutale, Jacob, Kerkhoff, Andrew D, Geng, Elvin H, Pollock, Brad H and Vera, Jaime H (2022) Evaluation of kidney function among people living with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy in Zambia. PLOS Global Public Health, 2 (4). a0000124 1-17. ISSN 2767-3375

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Abstract

As the response to the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa continues to mature, a growing number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are aging and risk for non-communicable diseases increases. Routine laboratory tests of serum creatinine have been conducted to assess HIV treatment (ART) suitability. Here we utilize those measures to assess kidney function impairment among those initiating ART. Identification of non-communicable disease (NCD) risks among those in HIV care creates opportunity to improve public health through care referral and/or NCD/HIV care integration. We estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) using routinely collected serum creatinine measures among a cohort of PLHIV with an HIV care visit at one of 113 Centre for Infectious Disease Research Zambia (CIDRZ) supported sites between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2017, across seven of the ten provinces in Zambia. We used mixed-effect Poisson regression to assess predictors of eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 allowing random effects at the individual and facility level. Additionally, we assessed agreement between four eGFR formulae with unadjusted CKD-EPI as a standard using Scott/Fleiss method across five categories of kidney function. A total of 72,933 observations among 68,534 individuals met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Of the 68,534, the majority were female 41,042 (59.8%), the median age was 34 (interquartile range [IQR]: 28–40), and median CD4 cell count was 292 (IQR: 162–435). The proportion of individuals with an eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 was 6.9% (95% CI: 6.7–7.1%) according to the unadjusted CKD-EPI equation. There was variation in agreement across eGFR formulas considered compared to unadjusted CKD-EPI (χ2 p-value <0.001). Estimated GFR less than 60ml/min/1.73m2, per the unadjusted CKD-EPI equation, was significantly associated with age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure. Using routine serum creatinine measures, we identified a significant proportion of individuals with eGFR indicating moderate or great kidney function impairment among PLHIV initiating ART in Zambia. It is possible that differentiated service delivery models could be developed to address this subset of those in HIV care with increased risk of chronic kidney disease.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: Brighton and Sussex Medical School > Global Health and Infection
SWORD Depositor: Mx Elements Account
Depositing User: Mx Elements Account
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2022 07:27
Last Modified: 22 Apr 2022 07:30
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/105462

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