BINGO complicity, necropolitical ecology and environmental defenders

Menton, Mary and Gilbert, Paul (2021) BINGO complicity, necropolitical ecology and environmental defenders. Policy Matters. Special Issue on Environmental Defenders 22, III. pp. 18-31.

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Abstract

Several big international non-governmental organisations (BINGOs) have been instrumental in increasing the attention brought to the lived experiences of environmental and land defenders and the atmospheres of violence they face. Among the many BINGOs who frame themselves as ‘supporters’ or ‘protectors’ of environmental and land defenders, several have been complicit in violence perpetrated by park guards and resource extraction companies. In this paper, we unpack the multifaceted nature of the role BINGOs play in shaping the atmospheres of violence with which environmental defenders contend. While BINGOs have acted as whistle-blowers and advocates providing legal assistance to at-risk defenders, they have also been complicit in ‘green violence’ perpetrated in the name of conservation, and more subtle relationships of ‘partnership’ with industries and specific corporations engaged in neo-colonial forms of extraction and violence against defenders. BINGO complicity with the violence against defenders replays the historical entanglement of some organisations with displacement and violence enacted in the name of colonial era conservation. We argue that BINGOs can, and must, work towards more radical forms of decolonial solidarity with environmental and land defenders who contend with atmospheres of violence shaped, in many cases, by conservation efforts and resource extraction activities with which BINGOs may be complicit, either directly, or through various forms of ‘partnership’.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: BINGOs, environmental defenders, necropolitical ecology, partnership
Schools and Departments: School of Global Studies > Anthropology
Research Centres and Groups: Sussex Sustainability Research Programme
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SWORD Depositor: Mx Elements Account
Depositing User: Mx Elements Account
Date Deposited: 28 Jul 2021 07:58
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2022 10:55
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/100817

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Project NameSussex Project NumberFunderFunder Ref
‘Sustainable’ development and atmospheres of violence: experiences of environmental defendersG2494BRITISH ACADEMYBA Ref:SDP2\100