Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation

Webb, Thomas L, Miles, Eleanor and Sheeran, Paschal (2012) Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 138 (4). pp. 775-808. ISSN 0033-2909

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Abstract

The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER) strategies. ER instructions were coded according to a new taxonomy, and meta-analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each strategy across studies. The findings revealed differences in effectiveness between ER processes: Attentional deployment had no effect on emotional outcomes (d+ = 0.00), response modulation had a small effect (d+ = 0.16), and cognitive change had a small-to-medium effect (d+ = 0.36). There were also important within-process differences. We identified 7 types of attentional deployment, 4 types of cognitive change, and 4 types of response modulation, and these distinctions had a substantial influence on effectiveness. Whereas distraction was an effective way to regulate emotions (d+ = 0.27), concentration was not (d+ = −0.26). Similarly, suppressing the expression of emotion proved effective (d+ = 0.32), but suppressing the experience of emotion or suppressing thoughts of the emotion-eliciting event did not (d+ = −0.04 and −0.12, respectively). Finally, reappraising the emotional response proved less effective (d+ = 0.23) than reappraising the emotional stimulus (d+ = 0.36) or using perspective taking (d+ = 0.45). The review also identified several moderators of strategy effectiveness including factors related to the (a) to-be-regulated emotion, (b) frequency of use and intended purpose of the ER strategy, (c) study design, and (d) study characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Psychology > Psychology
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Depositing User: Eleanor Miles
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2013 11:35
Last Modified: 16 Mar 2017 15:57
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/45356

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