An analysis of pay and occupational differences by gender and race in Brazil - 1987 to 2006

Salardi, Paola (2013) An analysis of pay and occupational differences by gender and race in Brazil - 1987 to 2006. Doctoral thesis (PhD), University of Sussex.

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Abstract

This thesis investigates the magnitude and evolution of gender and racial occupational segregation and wage gaps in Brazil from 1987 to 2006. First, we provide the construction of a new harmonized and temporally consistent re-classification of the occupational codes using the Brazilian household survey, the PNADs. This new occupational classification permits an examination of the evolution of the Brazilian occupational structure over a protracted period of time.

Second, we examine the occupational structure in Brazil assessing both the extent
and trends in gender and racial based occupational segregation. We use several wellknown
indices of segregation (Duncan and Duncan, 1955; Moir and Selby-Smith, 1979;
Karmel and Maclachlan, 1988; Silber, 1989) and focus on the evolution over time of the
occupational segregation across formal and non-formal labour markets. An attempt is
made to assess the main forces driving changes in occupational segregation over time by
employing a decomposition of the segregation measures developed by Deutsch,
Flueckiger and Silber (2009).

Third, we investigate the magnitude and evolution of gender and racial pay gaps in
Brazil by employing several decomposition techniques. Together with the standard
Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, we apply the Brown, Moon and Zoloth (1980)
decomposition technique, which allows us to account for the impact of occupational
segregation on the wage gap. We explore the impact of the selection process on our
decomposition results by employing different parametric corrections (the Heckman
(1979) and Lee (1983) corrections). Several sensitivity checks are also implemented and alternative correction methods investigated such as the non-parametric imputation method
by Olivetti and Petrongolo (2008) and the local wage gap estimation by Machado (2011).

Fourth, we attempt to provide a comprehensive portrait of gender and racial wage
gaps across the entire wage distribution while exploring the impact of gender and racial
occupational segregation on wage determination in the Brazilian labour market. Our
analysis particularly focuses on the evolution of the impact of female and non-white
occupational intensity on wage outcomes and disparities. We employ quantile regression
analysis in order to investigate the role of female and non-white occupational intensity at
different points along the conditional wage distribution. We then apply two different
decomposition techniques, proposed by Machado and Mata (2005) and Melly (2006), and
by Firpo, Fortin and Lemieux (2009), to investigate the determinants of wage disparities
at these different points in the wage distribution and to understand how these
determinants vary across the wage distribution.

Finally, we offer some concluding remarks, discuss the limitation of the research
and provide an agenda for future research on the themes investigated in this thesis.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Schools and Departments: School of Business, Management and Economics > Economics
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labour > HD4801 Labour. Work. Working class > HD8045 By region or country > HD8101 Other regions or countries > HD8110.5 Latin America > HD8251 South America > HD8281 Brazil
Depositing User: Library Cataloguing
Date Deposited: 20 Jun 2013 13:42
Last Modified: 10 Sep 2015 14:54
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/45204

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