The limitations of the G1-S checkpoint

Deckbar, Dorothee, Stiff, Thomas, Kock, Barbara, Reis, Caroline, Löbrich, Markus and Jeggo, Penny (2010) The limitations of the G1-S checkpoint. Cancer Research, 70 (11). pp. 4412-4421. ISSN 0008-5472

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Abstract

It has been proposed that the G1-S checkpoint is the critical regulator of genomic stability, preventing the cell cycle progression of cells with a single DNA double-strand break. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of asynchronous cells and microscopic analysis of asynchronous and synchronized cells, we show that full blockage of S-phase entry is only observed >4 hours after irradiation. The process is ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) dependent and Chk1/2 independent and can be activated throughout G1 phase. By monitoring S-phase entry of irradiated synchronized cells, we show that the duration of arrest is dose dependent, with S-phase entry recommencing after arrest with kinetics similar to that observed in unirradiated cells. Thus, G1-S checkpoint arrest is not always permanent. Following exposure to higher doses (≥2 Gy), G1-S arrest is inefficiently maintained, allowing progression of G1-phase cells into G2 with elevated γH2AX foci and chromosome breaks. At early times after irradiation (≤4 h), G1-S checkpoint arrest is not established but cells enter S phase at a reduced rate. This early slowing in S-phase entry is ATM and Chk2 dependent and detectable after 100 mGy, showing a novel and sensitive damage response. However, the time needed to establish G1-S checkpoint arrest provides a window when cells can progress to G2 and form chromosome breaks. Our findings detail the efficacy of the G1-S checkpoint and define two significant limitations: At early times after IR, the activated checkpoint fails to efficiently prevent S-phase entry, and at later times, the checkpoint is inefficiently maintained ©2010 AACR.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Life Sciences > Sussex Centre for Genome Damage and Stability
Subjects: Q Science
Depositing User: Philippa Erasmus
Date Deposited: 05 Jul 2012 09:25
Last Modified: 17 Jul 2012 10:58
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/39932
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