The Marginal Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Tol, Richard S J (1999) The Marginal Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Energy Journal, 20 (1). pp. 61-82. ISSN 0195-6574

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Abstract

Estimates of the marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions are an important input to the decision how much society would want to spend on greenhouse gas emission reduction. Marginal cost estimates in the literature range between $5 and $25 per tonne of carbon. Using similar assumptions, the FUND model finds marginal costs of $9-23/tC, depending on the discount rate. If the aggregation of impacts over countries accounts for inequalities in income distribution or for risk aversion, marginal costs would rise by about a factor of 3. Marginal costs per region are an order of magnitude smaller than global marginal costs. The ratios between the marginal costs of CO2 and those of CH4 and N2O are roughly equal to the global warming potentials of these gases. The uncertainty about the marginal costs is large and right-skewed. Tlte expected value of the marginal costs lies about 35% above the best guess, the 95-percentile about 250%.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Business, Management and Economics > Economics
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences > GE170 Environmental policy
H Social Sciences > HB Economic theory. Demography
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Depositing User: Richard Tol
Date Deposited: 17 Apr 2012 11:27
Last Modified: 27 Jun 2012 13:08
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/38380
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