Annotating expressions of Appraisal in English

Read, Jonathon and Carroll, John (2012) Annotating expressions of Appraisal in English. Language Resources and Evaluation, 46 (3). pp. 421-447. ISSN 1574-020X

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Abstract

In the context of Systemic Functional Linguistics, Appraisal is a theory describing the types of language utilised in communicating emotion and opinion. Robust automatic analyses of Appraisal could contribute in a number of ways to computational sentiment analysis by: distinguishing various types of evaluation, for example affect, ethics or aesthetics; discriminating between an author's opinions and the opinions of authors referenced by the author and determining the strength of evaluations. This paper reviews the typology described by Appraisal, presents a methodology for annotating Appraisal, and the use of this to annotate a corpus of book reviews. It discusses an inter-annotator agreement study, and considers instances of systematic disagreement that indicate areas in which Appraisal may be refined or clarified. Although the annotation task is difficult, there are many instances where the annotators agree; these are used to create a gold-standard corpus for future experimentation with Appraisal.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Engineering and Informatics > Informatics
Depositing User: John Carroll
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2012 21:19
Last Modified: 28 Feb 2014 12:08
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/30754
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