Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and Its Receptors Are Present and Biochemically Active in the Central Nervous System of the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis

Pirger, Zsolt, László, Zita, Hiripi, Laszlo, Hernadi, Laszlo, Tóth, Gábor, Lubics, Andrea, Reglődi, Dóra, Kemenes, György and Mark, Laszlo (2010) Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and Its Receptors Are Present and Biochemically Active in the Central Nervous System of the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 42 (3). pp. 464-471. ISSN 0895-8696

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Abstract

PACAP is a highly conserved adenylate cyclase (AC) activating polypeptide, which, along with its receptors (PAC1-R, VPAC1, and VPAC2), is expressed in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. In vertebrates, PACAP has been shown to be involved in associative learning, but it is not known if it plays a similar role in invertebrates. To prepare the way for a detailed investigation into the possible role of PACAP and its receptors in a suitable invertebrate model of learning and memory, here, we undertook a study of their expression and biochemical role in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Lymnaea is one of the best established invertebrate model systems to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, including the role of cyclic AMP-activated signaling mechanisms, which crucially depend on the learning-induced activation of AC. However, there was no information available on the expression of PACAP and its receptors in sensory structures and central ganglia of the Lymnaea nervous system known to be involved in associative learning or whether or not PACAP can actually activate AC in these ganglia. Here, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunohistochemistry, we established the presence of PACAP-like peptides in the cerebral ganglia and the lip region of Lymnaea. The MALDI-TOF data indicated an identity with mammalian PACAP-27 and the presence of a squid-like PACAP-38 highly homologous to vertebrate PACAP-38. We also showed that PACAP, VIP, and maxadilan stimulated the synthesis of cAMP in Lymnaea cerebral ganglion homogenates and that this effect was blocked by the appropriate general and selective PACAP receptor antagonists.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Life Sciences > Neuroscience
Depositing User: Zsolt Pirger
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2012 20:42
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2012 17:08
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/27640
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