Modelling contra-flow in crowd dynamics DEM simulation

Smith, Alastair, James, Christopher, Jones, Richard, Langston, Paul, Lester, Edward and Drury, John (2009) Modelling contra-flow in crowd dynamics DEM simulation. Safety Science, 47 (3). pp. 395-404. ISSN 0925-7535

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Abstract

This paper highlights the growing need for a realistic crowd simulation in the design of large venues such as concert halls and stadia. A discrete element method (DEM) technique for modelling crowd dynamics has been developed that represents each person within the model as 3 overlapping circles, a position, orientation and velocity in 2D. Contact forces between elements are included in the model as well as psychological forces, motive forces and moments. The motion of each person is then modelled in a Newtonian manner with a numerical integration time-stepping scheme. The model has been shown previously to work well in predicting egress. In this paper the predicted model behaviour is compared to actual video footage shot at various locations around University Park Campus, Nottingham. It did not match well to the video footage when people are moving towards each other, as in cases of contra-flow on a walkway. In order to improve the model, a general algorithm for `avoidance was included which appeared to make the model significantly more realistic in these cases. The paper also shows areas for further potential development, such as incorporating people into associative groups such as family or friends.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: School of Psychology > Psychology
Depositing User: John Drury
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2012 15:47
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2012 16:58
URI: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/14374
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